Showing: 21 - 30 of 192 RESULTS

Alcohol use changed right after COVID-19 lockdown — ScienceDaily

One in four adults reported a change in alcohol use almost immediately after stay-at-home orders were issued, according to a study of twins led by Washington State University researchers.

The study, published recently in Frontiers in Psychiatry, surveyed more than 900 twin pairs from the Washington State Twin Registry from March 26 to April 5, 2020, just after stay-at-home orders were issued in Washington on March 23. An estimated 14% of survey respondents said they drank more alcohol than the week prior and reported higher levels of stress and anxiety than those who did not drink alcohol and those whose use stayed the same.

“We expected that down the road people might turn to alcohol after the stay-at-home orders were issued, but apparently it happened right off the bat,” said Ally Avery, lead author of the study and a scientific operations manager at WSU’s Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine.

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New 3-D model of a DNA-regulating complex in human cells provides cancer clues — ScienceDaily

Scientists have created an unprecedented 3-dimensional structural model of a key molecular “machine” known as the BAF complex, which modifies DNA architecture and is frequently mutated in cancer and some other diseases. The researchers, led by Cigall Kadoch, PhD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, have reported the first 3-D structural “picture” of BAF complexes purified directly from human cells in their native states — rather than artificially synthesized in the laboratory -providing an opportunity to spatially map thousands of cancer-associated mutations to specific locations within the complex.

“A 3-D structural model, or ‘picture,’ of how this complex actually looks inside the nucleus of our cells has remained elusive — until now,” says Kadoch. The newly obtained model represents “the most complete picture of the human BAF complex achieved to date,” said the investigators, reporting in the journal Cell.

These new findings “provide a critical foundation for understanding human disease-associated mutations

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Animal study shows treatment blocks inflammation and protects lungs without killing the flu virus — ScienceDaily

The raging lung inflammation that can contribute to death from the flu can be stopped in its tracks by a drug derived from a naturally occurring human protein, a new animal study suggests.

In mouse studies, all untreated animals given a lethal dose of influenza died within days. All but one of the infected mice treated with the experimental therapy not only survived, but remained energetic and kept weight on — despite having high levels of the flu virus in their lungs.

The experimental treatment is a heavy dose of MG53, part of a family of proteins that plays an essential role in cell membrane repair. Already identified as a potential therapy for conditions ranging from Alzheimer’s disease to persistent skin wounds, MG53 was found in this study to prevent death from a lethal flu infection by blocking excessive inflammation — without having any effect on the virus itself.

The

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Scientists compile new evidence that atolls are formed by cyclic changes in sea level — ScienceDaily

Marine geologist and oceanographer André Droxler knows Charles Darwin’s theory about atolls is incorrect. But Droxler, who’s studied coral reefs for more than 40 years, understands why Darwin’s model persists in textbooks, university lecture halls, natural science museums and Wikipedia entries.

“It’s so beautiful, so simple and pleasing that everybody still teaches it,” said Droxler, who recently retired from Rice University. “Every introductory book you can find in Earth science and marine science still has Darwin’s model. If they teach one thing about reefs or carbonates in marine science 101, they teach that model.”

Droxler, a professor of Earth, environmental and planetary sciences at Rice for 33 years, is hoping to set the record straight with a 37-page, tour de force paper about the origins of atolls. Published this month in the Annual Review of Marine Science, the paper was co-authored by Droxler and longtime collaborator Stéphan Jorry, a

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Researchers confirm the safety of home discharge for low-risk patients with COVID-19 — ScienceDaily

A new study shows that the vast majority of patients who visited the Ruth and Harry Roman Emergency Department at Cedars-Sinai with suspected COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) symptoms, and who were treated and sent home to recuperate, recovered within a week.

The study, published by the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open, showed that none of those patients died from the virus and fewer than 1% required intensive care.

“When the pandemic began there was minimal evidence to guide us as to who should be hospitalized and who could be sent home,” said Sam Torbati, MD, co-chair and medical director of the Ruth and Harry Roman Emergency Department at Cedars-Sinai. “In real time, we began developing our criteria for who needed hospitalization for monitoring, intensive care, and who could recover at home. And this study shows our patients received the appropriate level of care.”

In the retrospective study,

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Without the North American monsoon, reining in wildfires gets harder — ScienceDaily

The North American monsoon has dictated the length of wildfire season for centuries in the U.S.-Mexico border region, according to new University of Arizona research that can inform land management amid global climate change.

But this year was anything but normal. The 2020 monsoon season was the second-driest on record, and many high-profile wildfires swept across the Sonoran Desert and surrounding sky islands. Putting an end to severe fires may only become harder as climate change makes monsoon storms less frequent and more extreme, say the authors of a new study published in the International Journal of Wildland Fire.

The U.S. may be able to learn from Mexico’s wildfire management strategy, the researchers say.

“These large fire years are the result of many factors, but fire weather and seasonal climate loom very large in the picture. In the case of (Tucson’s) Bighorn Fire (this summer), for example, we had

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Physicists successfully carry out controlled transport of stored light — ScienceDaily

A team of physicists led by Professor Patrick Windpassinger at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) has successfully transported light stored in a quantum memory over a distance of 1.2 millimeters. They have demonstrated that the controlled transport process and its dynamics has only little impact on the properties of the stored light. The researchers used ultra-cold rubidium-87 atoms as a storage medium for the light as to achieve a high level of storage efficiency and a long lifetime.

“We stored the light by putting it in a suitcase so to speak, only that in our case the suitcase was made of a cloud of cold atoms. We moved this suitcase over a short distance and then took the light out again. This is very interesting not only for physics in general, but also for quantum communication, because light is not very easy to ‘capture’, and if you want to transport

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Research review determines aerosol-generating procedures that require enhanced personal protective equipment — ScienceDaily

Autopsy, airway suctioning and cardiopulmonary resuscitation are among the list of medical procedures that pose a risk of spreading COVID-19 from a patient to their health-care provider by creating aerosols, according to new research published in the journal BMJ Open Respiratory Research by an international team of experts including occupational health, preventive medicine and infectious disease specialists.

The team, led by University of Alberta medicine professor Sebastian Straube, carried out a systematic review of public health guidelines, research papers and policy documents from around the globe to determine which procedures are classified as aerosol-generating.

“What we sought to do was to understand which procedures generate aerosols and therefore require a higher grade of personal protective equipment,” said Straube, who also heads the preventive medicine division of the Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry.

“Where there is 80 per cent agreement from a number of different source documents, we are reasonably confident

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COVID-19 frequently causes neurological injuries — ScienceDaily

Without directly invading the brain or nerves, the virus responsible for COVID-19 causes potentially damaging neurological injuries in about one in seven infected, a new study shows. These injuries range from temporary confusion due to low body-oxygen levels, to stroke and seizures in the most serious cases, say the study authors.

Led by researchers at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, the study showed no cases of brain or nerve inflammation (meningitis or encephalitis), indicating no immediate invasion of these organs by the pandemic virus, SARS-CoV-2.

While this should reassure patients, the neurological complications of COVID-19 should be taken seriously because they dramatically raise a patient’s risk of dying while still in hospital (by 38 percent), researchers say. Such adverse effects also raise a coronavirus patient’s likelihood (by 28 percent) of needing long-term or rehabilitation therapy immediately after their stay in hospital.

“The results of our study showed no signs that

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Environmental impacts of pot fishing — ScienceDaily

The global pot fishing industry could be having a greater impact on corals, sponges and other species found on the seabed than previously thought, according to new research.

Scientists from the University of Plymouth (UK) attached video cameras to pots used by crab and lobster fishermen off the south coast of England.

As the pots were lowered, and later recovered, they recorded any damage caused to the rocky reefs on the seabed and various ecologically important species which call them home.

The resulting footage showed that of the 18 species observed, 14 suffered damage as the pots were hauled from the seabed.

This included certain species — including pink sea fans, ross coral, Dead Man’s Fingers and boring sponges — recognised as indicators of general health in the marine environment.

The findings go against previous thinking around the damage caused by pot fishing to the seabed, with research carried out

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